Law 735
Federal Criminal Law

Syracuse University College of Law
Teaching Professor William C. Snyder
Fall 2019

Jump to: Lesson 21 for Tuesday, November 19, 2019.

Working Syllabus

The primary text is Richman, Stith, and Stuntz's Defining Federal Crimes, 2d (Aspen, 2017, ISBN 9781454851349), hereinafter "DFL." 

Lesson

Assignment

Lesson 1 8/20/19

I. Institutional Design

A. Changing Boundaries (page 1)

1. The Growth of Federal Criminal Jurisdiction

2. Negotiated Boundaries

3. The Costs of Negotiated Boundaries

4. Toward New Boundaries?

B. The United States Department of Justice

C. Federal Criminal Litigation: A Snapshot

D. Constitutional Structure

Constitution of the United States

The Constitution and Federal Criminal Law (20)

For Lesson 1 on Tuesday, August 20, 2019, please read DFL pages 1 to 26.

Lesson 2 8/27/19

II. Jurisdiction: Federal Criminal Law and the Commerce Power (24)

A. ''Commerce . . . Among the Several States'' (25)

1. Elemental Jurisdiction (26)

2. Categorical Jurisdiction (35)

B. "Commerce with Foreign Nations" (57)

For lesson 2 on Tuesday, August 27, 2019, please read DFL pages 27 to 63. Although this assignment is uncommonly long, I expect that you are familiar already with United States v. Lopez (1995) and Gonzales v. Raich (2005) from Constitutional Law.

Lesson 3 8/29/19

B. ''Commerce with Foreign Nations'' (57)

United States v. Clark (57)

Federal Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (63)

For Lesson 3 on Thursday, August 29, 2019, please read DFL pages 57 to 69 plus handout on extraterritorial jurisdiction.

Lesson 4 9/3/19

For Lesson 4 on Tuesday, September 3, 2019, please read DFL pages 70 to 106.

III. The Separation of Powers: Interpreting Federal Criminal Statutes (p. 70)

A. The Ban on Common-Law Crimes (p. 71)

B. The Definition of Criminal Conduct (p. 76)

C. Criminal Defenses (p. 91)

Lesson 5
9/5/19

D. Criminal Intent (p. 106)

1. The Historical Debate 107

For Lesson 5 on Thursday, 9/5/19, please review Sections B and C from Lesson 4 and read Section D.1., whatever the page numbers are.

Lesson 6 9/10/19

For Lesson 6 on 9/10/19, please read Section D.2. of Chapter 3,

2. Distinguishing Culpable from Innocent Conduct 118

Lesson 7 9/12/19

For Lesson 7 on 9/12/19, please read sections A. and B of Chapter 4.

IV. Mail and Wire Fraud 161
§1341. Frauds and swindles
§1343. Fraud by wire, radio, or television

[Page numbering not correct]

A. Scheme to Defraud 182

B. Prosecutorial Innovations and Judicial Constraints in Mail and.Honest Services Fraud 220

Lesson 8 on 9/17/19 Please review pp. 182-220 and read pp. 220-224.
  [class did not meet as scheduled on 9/19/19.]
Lesson 9 on 9/24/19

Please read pp. 224-253.

C. Honest Services Fraud (p. 220)

D. Jurisdiction — Mailings and Wire Communications (p. 241)

E. An Alternative Vision of Law Development (p. 253)

Lesson 10 on 9/26/19

Please read pp. 265 - 297.

 

V. Extortion 265

A. Coercion and Consent 266

Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. §1951. Interference with commerce by threats or violence 266

1. Violence 267

2. Economic Threats 281

 

[Class did not meet as originally scheduled on 10/1/19.]
Lesson 11 on 10/3/19

Please read pp. 297-333.

3. Informational Blackmail and Claims of Right 297

B. Obtaining Property 309

Lesson 12 on 10/10/19

Please read pp. 335-360.

VI. Official Corruption 335

A. Extortion Under Color of Official Right 336

Lesson 13 on 10/15/19

Please read 360-395.

A. Extortion Under Color of Official Right (Cont.)

Lesson 14 on 10/17/19

Please read 395-427.

B. Bribes and Gratuities 391

C. Program Bribery (p. 405)

D. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 424

Lesson 15 on 10/22/19

Please read from the start of Chapter VII through subsection A.2. Deprivation of Rights

VII. Criminal Violations of Constitutional Rights 429
18 U.S.C. §241. Conspiracy against rights 430
18 U.S.C. §242. Deprivation of rights under color of law 430
The History of Criminal Enforcement of Civil Rights 430

A. Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law 434

1. "Willfully" 434
2. Deprivation of "Rights" 451

[Class did not meet as scheduled on 10/24/19.]
Lesson 16 on 10/29/19

Please read pp. 459-490. In fact covered

A. Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law 434

1. "Willfully" 434
2. Deprivation of "Rights" 451

...

4. "Under Color of Law" 463

[Class did not meet as scheduled on 10/31/19.]
Lesson 17 on 11/5/19

Please review pp. 459-502, skipping "4. Under Color of Law," which we have already done.

3. New Horizons in Rights Vindicating Prosecutions 459
4. "Under Color of Law" 463

B. Civil Rights Prosecutions of Private Actors 474

18 U.S.C. §245. Federally protected activities 479
18 U.S.C. §249. Hate crime acts 488

Lesson 18 on 11/7/19 and, in fact, Lesson 19 on 11/12/19

Please read pp. 503-516 and pp. 524-539. In other words, skip "B. Accessory After the Fact and Misprision of Felony Liability"

VIII. The Law of Criminal Organizations 503

A. Accomplice Liability 505

18 U.S.C. §2. Principals 505

1. Actus Reus 505
2. Mens Rea 507

a. Traditional Formulation(s?) 507
b. Willful Blindness 510
c. 18 U.S.C. §2(b) 512

3. Some Complications of Accomplice Liability 512

B. Accessory After the Fact and Misprision of Felony Liability 516

1. Accessory After the Fact 516
18 U.S.C. §3. Accessory after the fact 516
2. Misprision of Felony 518
18 U.S.C. §4. Misprision of felony 518

C. Conspiracy 524

18 U.S.C. §371. Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States 525

1. The Federal Law of Conspiracy 525

a. Conspiratorial Agreements 525
b. Overt Act Requirement 529
c. Distinguishing Conspiracy and Attempt 529
d. The Buyer-Seller "Exception" 530
e. Withdrawal 531

2. Distinguishing Between Conspiracy and Accomplice Liability 532

Lesson 20 on 11/14/19

Please read pp. 539-567.

D. Money Laundering 539

1. 18 U.S.C. §1956 540
18 U.S.C. §1956. Laundering of monetary instruments 542
2. Distinguishing Money Laundering from the Underlying Criminal Activity 544
3. Third Party Intermediary Liability 555
4. 18 U.S.C. §1957 565
18 U.S.C. §1957. Engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity 565

Lesson 21 on 11/19/19

Please read pp. 567-608.

E. Enterprise Crime 567

18 U.S.C. §§1961-1964 [RICO] 567

1. Defining the RICO "Enterprise" 576

Boyle v. United States 578
The Meaning of Enterprise 585
United States v. Cianci 588
Notes and Questions 594

2. Conducting, or Participating in the Conduct of, the Enterprise's Affairs 597

United States v. Oreto 597

3. Other Ways to Participate in the Enterprise 600
4. Through a Pattern of Racketeering Activity 602

The Meaning of "Pattern of Racketeering Activity" 604

5. RICO Conspiracies 606

F. Material Support Offenses 608

1. Criminal Enforcement Tools Against Terrorism 608
2. Material Support Statutes 611
18 U.S.C. §2339A. Providing material support to terrorists 611
18 U.S.C. §2339B. Providing material support or resources to designated foreign terrorist organizations 612
3. Liability Under §2339(A) 615
United States v. Jayyousi 615
Notes and Questions 618
4. Liability Under §2339B 621
United States v. Mehanna 622
Notes and Questions 629

Lesson 22 on 11/21/19

Please read pp. 635-662 and 677-686. That is, skip the part on marijuana, which constitutes a miniscule amount of federal prosecutions.

IX. Drugs and Punishment 635

Notes on the U.S. Opioid Crisis Circa 2017 641

A. Substantive Law 643

21 U.S.C. §841(a) 644

1. Drug Scheduling 644

21 U.S.C. §812. Schedules of controlled substances 645

The Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986 ("Analogue Act") 648

2. Federal Drug Law Within U.S. Borders 660

a. The Crime of Simple Possession 660

b. Prosecuting Traffickers in Listed Chemicals 661

c. Marijuana Prosecutions in Changing Times 662

Providing Legal Services to Clients Seeking Licenses Under the Connecticut Medical Marijuana Law, Professional Ethics Committee, Connecticut Bar Association, Informal Opinion 2013-02 664

3. International Narcotics Trafficking 677

46 U.S.C. §705. Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act 679

 

Lesson 23 on 11/21/19
online?

Please read pp. 686-717.

B. Drug Penalties 686

1. The Statutory Structure of Drug Sentencing Law 688

Mandatory Minimum Sentences 689

2. Prior Drug Felony Sentencing Enhancements 693

21 U.S.C. §851. Proceedings to establish prior convictions 693

United States v. Kupa 694

3. Calculating Drug Quantity 704

4. The Crack/Powder Cocaine Sentencing Disparity 708

5. Sentencing Entrapment 714

6. Drugs, Guns, and Consecutive Mandatory Minimum Sentences 717

18 U.S.C. §924(c) 717

 

   
Lesson 24 online

Please read pp. 608-623, then watch this presentation. [This link is correct. If you get an error message about the page or site can't be found, please clear your cahe or try another browser.]

F. Material Support Offenses 608

1. Criminal Enforcement Tools Against Terrorism 608
2. Material Support Statutes 611
18 U.S.C. §2339A. Providing material support to terrorists 611
18 U.S.C. §2339B. Providing material support or resources to designated foreign terrorist organizations 612
3. Liability Under §2339(A) 615
United States v. Jayyousi 615
Notes and Questions 618
4. Liability Under §2339B 621
United States v. Mehanna 622
Notes and Questions 629

Lesson 24 online

Please read, then watch this presentation.

Use of classified evidence in Federal Courts.

Assignment: For following lessons, assignments will be posted on the course website and announced in class.

 







X. Sentencing 729
A. Discretionary Sentencing 730
How Judges Exercised Broad Sentencing Discretion 731
B. The Advent, Operation, and Evolution of Federal Sentencing Guidelines 736
1. Introduction to the Guidelines 736
2. Real-Offense Sentencing 740
3. The Sentencing Guidelines and the Constitution 743
C. The Status and Operation of the Guidelines After Booker 751
18 U.S.C. §3553 752
Notes and Questions About the Post-Booker
Statutory Framework 753
Recent Developments in Law and Practice 754
D. Defining Crimes Under Advisory Sentencing Guidelines 759
1. Mail and Wire Fraud 759
U.S.S.G. §2B1.1 759
2. Political Corruption 773
U.S.S.G. §2C1.1 773
3. Drug Trafficking 783
a. Mandatory Sentences versus Mandatory Guidelines 783
Gerard E. Lynch, Sentencing Eddie 784
E. The Future of Sentencing Law 793

XI. Corporate Crime 797
A. Entity Liability 800
1. The Origins of Corporate Criminal Liability 801
2. Application of Entity Liability 810
3. Current Landscape: Deferred Prosecutions, Corporate Monitors, and Prosecutors as "Super-Regulators" 817
Principles of Federal Prosecution of Business Organizations 825
4. Prospects for the Future 829
a. Due Diligence Defense? 829
b. Limitation to High-Level Corporate Officials? 832
c. Increased Judicial Oversight of Deferred and
Non-Prosecution Agreements? 833
d. Beyond Entities: The Yates Memo and Individual
Accountability 835
e. Other Ways Forward 837
B. Liability of "Responsible Corporate Officers" 839
The Significance of Expansive Corporate Criminal Liability 865

 

Examination

To be determined.
 

 

old 2018 syllabus

old 2015 syllabus.

 

2015 money laundering and RICOx2 exist. 10/26, 10/28, 11/2/15.

CIPA L23 LAW 790 4/17/18 into Lesson 24.

 

 

 

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